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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disease. Having COPD makes it hard to breathe.

There are two main forms of COPD:

  • Chronic bronchitis, which involves a long-term cough with mucus
  • Emphysema, which involves damage to the lungs over time

Most people with COPD have a combination of both conditions.

Smoking Myths & Facts

  • Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD.

     

    A. Myth

     

    B. Fact

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is fact. Smoking causes about 80% of all COPD cases. The more you smoke, the higher your risk of COPD. Other risk factors for COPD include secondhand smoke, pollution, or being exposed to certain fumes and gases at work.
  • Quitting smoking doesn't help once you have COPD.

     

    A. Myth

     

    B. Fact

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is myth. There is no cure for COPD, but quitting smoking can help your lungs work better and lower your risk of dying from COPD. If you smoke, talk with your doctor about ways to quit.
  • Smoking both marijuana and tobacco increases your risk of COPD.

     

    A. Myth

     

    B. Fact

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is fact. People who smoke both marijuana and tobacco have almost three times the risk of COPD compared with those who don't smoke. Experts aren't sure why, but they think smoking marijuana makes it easier for tobacco to damage the lungs.
  • Most people can quit smoking on the first try.

     

    A. Myth

     

    B. Fact

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is myth. Most people try to quit about seven times before succeeding. Using quit smoking aids can help. These include counseling, prescription medicines, and nicotine patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers, and nasal spray -- some of which also require a prescription. Talk with your doctor about your options.
  • Smokers have more COPD flare-ups than nonsmokers.

     

    A. Myth

     

    B. Fact

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is fact. Flares-ups are the most common reason that people with COPD have to go to the hospital. Having flare-ups causes your lungs to get worse more quickly. Call your doctor if your COPD symptoms get noticeably worse.
  • Men's lungs are more likely to be damaged by smoking than women's.

     

    A. Myth

     

    B. Fact

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is myth. In fact, women's lungs are more likely to be damaged by smoking. This may be because of differences in genes or hormones. However, women who stop smoking get their lung function back more quickly than men. All smokers should try to quit. If you need help quitting, talk to your doctor.
  • Smoking is not addictive.

     

    A. Myth

     

    B. Fact

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is myth. The nicotine in cigarettes and other tobacco products can cause the same kind of addiction as cocaine or heroin. When you smoke, the nicotine enters your lungs, gets absorbed into your bloodstream, and travels to your brain.
  • How you smoke can affect how much nicotine gets into your body.

     

    A. Myth

     

    B. Fact

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is fact. You may take in more nicotine if you inhale deeply into the lungs and take a lot of puffs. This is because nicotine gets absorbed into your body through the lining of your mouth and as well as your lungs.
  • When you quit smoking, your heart rate and blood pressure return to normal levels.

     

    A. Myth

     

    B. Fact

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is fact. Smoking raises your heart rate and blood pressure, and stopping helps them come back down. When you quit, you'll have less carbon monoxide in your blood, so it can carry more oxygen to your body. Your senses of taste and smell will improve.
  • Taking a puff of a cigarette can reduce your craving for more.

     

    A. Myth

     

    B. Fact

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is myth. One puff of a cigarette will make your craving stronger. Instead, look for other ways to satisfy your craving, such as chewing sugarless gum or eating a piece of fruit or other low-calorie snack. Take walks or ride a bike. Exercise helps relieve the urge to smoke.

Causes

Smoking is the main cause of COPD. The more a person smokes, the more likely that person will develop COPD. But some people smoke for years and never get COPD.

In rare cases, nonsmokers who lack a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema.

Other risk factors for COPD are:

  • Exposure to certain gases or fumes in the workplace
  • Exposure to heavy amounts of secondhand smoke and pollution
  • Frequent use of a cooking fire without proper ventilation

Symptoms

Symptoms may include any of the following:

  • Cough, with or without mucus
  • Fatigue
  • Many respiratory infections
  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea) that gets worse with mild activity
  • Trouble catching one's breath
  • Wheezing

Because the symptoms develop slowly, some people may not know that they have COPD.

Exams and Tests

The best test for COPD is a lung function test called spirometry. This involves blowing out as hard as possible into a small machine that tests lung capacity. The results can be checked right away.

Using a stethoscope to listen to the lungs can also be helpful. But sometimes, the lungs sound normal, even when a person has COPD.

Imaging tests of the lungs, such as x-rays and CT scans, can be helpful. With an x-ray, the lungs may look normal, even when a person has COPD. A CT scan will usually show signs of COPD.

Sometimes, a blood test called arterial blood gas may be done to measure the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

Treatment

There is no cure for COPD. But there are many things you can do to relieve symptoms and keep the disease from getting worse.

If you smoke, now is the time to quit. This is the best way to slow lung damage.

Medicines used to treat COPD include:

  • Quick-relief drugs to help open the airways
  • Control drugs to reduce lung inflammation
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce swelling in the airways
  • Certain long-term antibiotics

In severe cases or during flare-ups, you may need to receive:

  • Steroids by mouth or through a vein (intravenously)
  • Bronchodilators through a nebulizer
  • Oxygen therapy
  • Assistance from a machine to help breathing by using a mask, BiPAP, or through the use of an endotracheal tube

Your health care provider may prescribe antibiotics during symptom flare-ups, because an infection can make COPD worse.

You may need oxygen therapy at home if you have a low level of oxygen in your blood.

Pulmonary rehabilitation does not cure COPD. But it can teach you to breathe in a different way so you can stay active and feel better.

LIVING WITH COPD

You can do things every day to keep COPD from getting worse, protect your lungs, and stay healthy.

Walk to build up strength:

  • Ask the provider or therapist how far to walk.
  • Slowly increase how far you walk.
  • Avoid talking if you get short of breath when you walk.
  • Use pursed lip breathing when you breathe out, to empty your lungs before the next breath.

Things you can do to make it easier for yourself around the home include:

  • Avoid very cold air or very hot weather
  • Make sure no one smokes in your home
  • Reduce air pollution by not using the fireplace and getting rid of other irritants
  • Manage stress and your mood
  • Use oxygen if prescribed for you

Eat healthy foods, including fish, poultry, and lean meat, as well as fruits and vegetables. If it is hard to keep your weight up, talk to a provider or dietitian about eating foods with more calories.

Surgery may be used to treat COPD. Only a few people benefit from these surgical treatments:

  • Surgery to remove parts of the diseased lung, which can help less-diseased parts work better in some people with emphysema.
  • Lung transplant for a small number of very severe cases.

Test Your Knowledge of COPD Triggers

  • People with COPD should take care to avoid getting a cold or the flu.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is true. Getting a cold or the flu can trigger a flare-up of symptoms. Reduce your risk of infection by washing your hands often and avoiding people with a cold or the flu. You should also get a flu vaccine each year and get a pneumococcal vaccine -- ask your doctor how often.
  • The air quality outside can affect your COPD symptoms.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is true. Pollution and other materials in the air can trigger COPD symptoms. You can check the air quality index (AQI) each day to see how clean the air is in your area. Look for the AQI posted in your local newspaper or on the TV or radio.
  • Secondhand smoke doesn't affect people with COPD.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is false. Secondhand smoke can trigger a flare-up of COPD symptoms. To limit your exposure, avoid places where people smoke. Also ask family and friends not to smoke near you or in or around your home.
  • Smoke from a wood-burning stove can trigger a flare-up.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is true. If you can't avoid using a wood-burning stove, choose one that is EPA-emission certified. Also, make sure to have the stove, fireplace, and chimney cleaned each year, and only burn wood that has been dry for many months.
  • Painting your living room can trigger COPD symptoms.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is true. Paint is just one household product that contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs). When inhaled, VOCs can cause your COPD symptoms to get worse. To limit your contact, use a fan to vent rooms when using paint or cleaning products.
  • You can reduce your exposure to pollen by:

     

    A. Staying inside when the pollen count is high

     

    B. Using an air conditioner to filter air

     

    C. Removing indoor plants

     

    D. A and B

     

    E. All of the above

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is all of the above. Pollen is another possible trigger of COPD symptoms. Staying indoors when the pollen count is high helps prevent flare-ups. Pollen counts are highest between 5 AM and 10 AM on hot, dry, windy days. Remove indoor plants if they trigger symptoms.
  • You can keep mold out of your home by controlling moisture.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is true. Mold is another COPD trigger. It grows in places that are moist. Limit mold in your home by keeping the indoor humidity low. You can do this by using an air conditioner or dehumidifier.
  • Dust mites are common in dry areas of your home.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is false. Dust mites live in dust particles, but they thrive in humid locations. Dust mite droppings can trigger COPD. You can limit dust mites by dusting with a damp cloth, vacuuming often, washing bedding once a week in hot water, and using an air conditioner in warm weather.
  • Which of the following can cause a flare-up?

     

    A. Pet dander

     

    B. Pet skin flakes

     

    C. Pet urine

     

    D. Pet saliva

     

    E. All of the above

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is all of the above. Pets can trigger COPD symptoms, but you don't have to get rid of your furry friend. Reduce your contact with triggers by keeping pets out of your bedroom and off of carpets, bed linens, and upholstered furniture. If possible, choose pets without fur or feathers.
  • Your appliances can cause indoor pollution.

     

    A. True

     

    B. False

    Correct Answer
    The correct answer is true. Any appliance that uses gas, oil, propane, natural gas, or kerosene can produce fumes that can trigger COPD symptoms. To reduce this risk, have your furnace and other heating and cooling systems cleaned and inspected each year.

Support Groups

You can ease the stress of illness by joining a support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.

Outlook (Prognosis)

COPD is a long-term (chronic) illness. The disease will get worse more quickly if you do not stop smoking.

If you have severe COPD, you will be short of breath with most activities. You may be admitted to the hospital more often.

Talk with your provider about breathing machines and end-of-life care as the disease progresses.

Possible Complications

With COPD, you may have other health problems such as:

  • Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
  • Need for breathing machine and oxygen therapy
  • Right-sided heart failure or cor pulmonale (heart swelling and heart failure due to chronic lung disease)
  • Pneumonia
  • Pneumothorax
  • Severe weight loss and malnutrition
  • Thinning of the bones (osteoporosis)
  • Debilitation
  • Increased anxiety

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have a rapid increase in shortness of breath.

Prevention

Not smoking prevents most COPD. Ask your provider about quit-smoking programs. Medicines are also available to help you stop smoking.

References

Anderson B, Conner K, Dunn C, et al. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 10th edition. www.icsi.org/_asset/yw83gh/COPD.pdf. Updated January 2016.
Accessed July 18, 2017.

Celli BR, Zuwallack RL. Pulmonary rehabilitation. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 105.

Criner GJ, Bourbeau J, Diekemper RL, et al. Prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD: American College of Chest Physicians and Canadian Thoracic Society guideline. Chest. 2015;147(4):894-942. PMID: 25321320 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25321320.

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) website. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2017 report. goldcopd.org/gold-2017-global-strategy-diagnosis-management-prevention-copd/. Accessed July 18, 2017.

Han MK, Lazarus SC. COPD: clinical diagnosis and management. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 44.

    • Smoking tips to quit

      Smoking tips to quit

      Animation

    •  

      Smoking tips to quit - Animation

      You probably know by now that smoking damages your lungs, raising your risk for bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer. And, you're probably well aware that lighting up also puts you at risk for many different types of cancers, as well as eye disease like cataracts and premature wrinkles, you know why you shouldn't smoke, it's just the quitting part you can't seem to get past. Let's talk about some helpful tips to help you quit smoking, for good this time. It's a familiar story, one that plays out over and over again among smokers. You vow to quit, and you have every intention of doing it, and then the cravings hit. And you can't think about anything but having a cigarette. You get irritable, and you start putting on weight. You think, Just one cigarette wouldn’t hurt, would it? And then, before you know it, you're smoking again. Most smokers have tried to quit, and failed, several times. Even if you've failed before, you can still succeed at quitting. Many people have. You just need to find the technique that works for you. So, here are a few tips that can help. First, set a quit date. Write it down on your calendar and tell a few friends, so you'll be too embarrassed to back out. Before your quit date, throw out every cigarette in your house, car, and office. Also toss every ashtray, lighter, and anything else you need to smoke. Wash your clothes and clean your furniture so you won't have that smoky smell hanging around your house. Next, call your doctor. Ask about smoking cessation programs in your area. Also learn about tools that can help you quit, like medicines that reduce the urge to smoke, and nicotine replacement gums, lozenges, patches, and sprays. And then, plan what you'll do instead of smoking. If you smoke with your morning cup of coffee, drink tea or go for a walk instead. If you need a cigarette to keep your mouth busy, try chewing sugarless gum or nibble on a carrot stick. Stick to places where smoking isn't allowed, like smoke-free restaurants. And finally, reward yourself for not smoking. Put all that money that you would have spent on cigarettes into a jar. And once you've collected enough money, use it to take a trip or buy something you've wanted for a long time. Don't get discouraged. Quitting smoking isn't easy. If it were, everyone would have done it by now. Be persistent, reward yourself for the progress you've made, and keep at it until you finally conquer the urge to smoke.

    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

      Animation

    •  

      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - Animation

      For years, you've enjoyed relaxing with a cigarette in your hand, and looked forward to your cigarette breaks at work, but now, all of that smoking has caught up with you. You're coughing, wheezing, often out of breath. Could you have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Let's talk about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, for short. COPD is a lung disease that's usually caused by smoking, although some people who smoke for years never get the condition, while a few get COPD even if they've never lit up. Most people with COPD have a combination of a cough that just won't go away, called chronic bronchitis, and lung damage, called emphysema. The symptoms of COPD can sneak up on you slowly. Over time, you'll develop a cough that lingers, day after day. You'll feel tired, and have trouble catching your breath. Only your doctor can tell for sure whether this is COPD. To test for it, you'll need to breathe or blow into a machine as hard as you can, and hold that breath, as long as you can, in a test called spirometry. You may also need to have a blood test to determine how much oxygen and carbon dioxide is in your blood. If you have COPD, the ways things stand now, you'll have it for life, as there is no cure for this disease. However, there are ways to control the condition and help you breathe more easily. The first thing you do, absolutely need to do, is stop smoking, which will help slow down the damage to your lungs. A few medicines can help relieve COPD symptoms. You may breathe in a bronchodilator medicine through an inhaler to open up your airways, or take steroids to bring down the swelling in your lungs. If you're having real trouble breathing though, call your local emergency services number. You may need to visit the hospital for oxygen or breathing assistance. You may also need to take antibiotics during flare-ups, because getting an infection can make your COPD worse. Though it may be hard to exercise when you're feeling out of breath, staying active will help keep your muscles strong. Your doctor can teach you how to breathe in a different way so that you can exercise with COPD. You can help avoid the shortness of breath, the coughing, and the wheezing of COPD by butting out, kicking your cigarette habit as soon as possible. Not smoking is the absolute best way to prevent COPD. Ask your doctor about programs and medicines that may make it easier for you to quit.

    • Spirometry

      Spirometry - illustration

      Spirometry is a painless study of air volume and flow rate within the lungs. Spirometry is frequently used to evaluate lung function in people with obstructive or restrictive lung diseases such as asthma or cystic fibrosis.

      Spirometry

      illustration

    • Emphysema

      Emphysema - illustration

      Emphysema is a lung disease involving damage to the air sacs (alveoli). There is progressive destruction of alveoli and the surrounding tissue that supports the alveoli. With more advanced disease, large air cysts develop where normal lung tissue used to be. Air is trapped in the lungs due to lack of supportive tissue which decreases oxygenation.

      Emphysema

      illustration

    • Bronchitis

      Bronchitis - illustration

      Bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchi, the main air passages to the lungs. It generally follows a viral respiratory infection. Symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing and fatigue.

      Bronchitis

      illustration

    • Quitting smoking

      Quitting smoking - illustration

      The many methods of quitting smoking include counseling and support groups, nicotine patches, gums and sprays, and incremental reduction.

      Quitting smoking

      illustration

    • COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder)

      COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder) - illustration

      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to chronic lung disorders that result in blocked air flow in the lungs. The two main COPD disorders are emphysema and chronic bronchitis, the most common causes of respiratory failure. Emphysema occurs when the walls between the lung's air sacs become weakened and collapse. Damage from COPD is usually permanent and irreversible.

      COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder)

      illustration

    • Respiratory system

      Respiratory system - illustration

      Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

      Respiratory system

      illustration

    • Smoking tips to quit

      Animation

    •  

      Smoking tips to quit - Animation

      You probably know by now that smoking damages your lungs, raising your risk for bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer. And, you're probably well aware that lighting up also puts you at risk for many different types of cancers, as well as eye disease like cataracts and premature wrinkles, you know why you shouldn't smoke, it's just the quitting part you can't seem to get past. Let's talk about some helpful tips to help you quit smoking, for good this time. It's a familiar story, one that plays out over and over again among smokers. You vow to quit, and you have every intention of doing it, and then the cravings hit. And you can't think about anything but having a cigarette. You get irritable, and you start putting on weight. You think, Just one cigarette wouldn’t hurt, would it? And then, before you know it, you're smoking again. Most smokers have tried to quit, and failed, several times. Even if you've failed before, you can still succeed at quitting. Many people have. You just need to find the technique that works for you. So, here are a few tips that can help. First, set a quit date. Write it down on your calendar and tell a few friends, so you'll be too embarrassed to back out. Before your quit date, throw out every cigarette in your house, car, and office. Also toss every ashtray, lighter, and anything else you need to smoke. Wash your clothes and clean your furniture so you won't have that smoky smell hanging around your house. Next, call your doctor. Ask about smoking cessation programs in your area. Also learn about tools that can help you quit, like medicines that reduce the urge to smoke, and nicotine replacement gums, lozenges, patches, and sprays. And then, plan what you'll do instead of smoking. If you smoke with your morning cup of coffee, drink tea or go for a walk instead. If you need a cigarette to keep your mouth busy, try chewing sugarless gum or nibble on a carrot stick. Stick to places where smoking isn't allowed, like smoke-free restaurants. And finally, reward yourself for not smoking. Put all that money that you would have spent on cigarettes into a jar. And once you've collected enough money, use it to take a trip or buy something you've wanted for a long time. Don't get discouraged. Quitting smoking isn't easy. If it were, everyone would have done it by now. Be persistent, reward yourself for the progress you've made, and keep at it until you finally conquer the urge to smoke.

    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

      Animation

    •  

      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - Animation

      For years, you've enjoyed relaxing with a cigarette in your hand, and looked forward to your cigarette breaks at work, but now, all of that smoking has caught up with you. You're coughing, wheezing, often out of breath. Could you have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Let's talk about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, for short. COPD is a lung disease that's usually caused by smoking, although some people who smoke for years never get the condition, while a few get COPD even if they've never lit up. Most people with COPD have a combination of a cough that just won't go away, called chronic bronchitis, and lung damage, called emphysema. The symptoms of COPD can sneak up on you slowly. Over time, you'll develop a cough that lingers, day after day. You'll feel tired, and have trouble catching your breath. Only your doctor can tell for sure whether this is COPD. To test for it, you'll need to breathe or blow into a machine as hard as you can, and hold that breath, as long as you can, in a test called spirometry. You may also need to have a blood test to determine how much oxygen and carbon dioxide is in your blood. If you have COPD, the ways things stand now, you'll have it for life, as there is no cure for this disease. However, there are ways to control the condition and help you breathe more easily. The first thing you do, absolutely need to do, is stop smoking, which will help slow down the damage to your lungs. A few medicines can help relieve COPD symptoms. You may breathe in a bronchodilator medicine through an inhaler to open up your airways, or take steroids to bring down the swelling in your lungs. If you're having real trouble breathing though, call your local emergency services number. You may need to visit the hospital for oxygen or breathing assistance. You may also need to take antibiotics during flare-ups, because getting an infection can make your COPD worse. Though it may be hard to exercise when you're feeling out of breath, staying active will help keep your muscles strong. Your doctor can teach you how to breathe in a different way so that you can exercise with COPD. You can help avoid the shortness of breath, the coughing, and the wheezing of COPD by butting out, kicking your cigarette habit as soon as possible. Not smoking is the absolute best way to prevent COPD. Ask your doctor about programs and medicines that may make it easier for you to quit.

    • Spirometry

      Spirometry - illustration

      Spirometry is a painless study of air volume and flow rate within the lungs. Spirometry is frequently used to evaluate lung function in people with obstructive or restrictive lung diseases such as asthma or cystic fibrosis.

      Spirometry

      illustration

    • Emphysema

      Emphysema - illustration

      Emphysema is a lung disease involving damage to the air sacs (alveoli). There is progressive destruction of alveoli and the surrounding tissue that supports the alveoli. With more advanced disease, large air cysts develop where normal lung tissue used to be. Air is trapped in the lungs due to lack of supportive tissue which decreases oxygenation.

      Emphysema

      illustration

    • Bronchitis

      Bronchitis - illustration

      Bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchi, the main air passages to the lungs. It generally follows a viral respiratory infection. Symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing and fatigue.

      Bronchitis

      illustration

    • Quitting smoking

      Quitting smoking - illustration

      The many methods of quitting smoking include counseling and support groups, nicotine patches, gums and sprays, and incremental reduction.

      Quitting smoking

      illustration

    • COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder)

      COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder) - illustration

      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to chronic lung disorders that result in blocked air flow in the lungs. The two main COPD disorders are emphysema and chronic bronchitis, the most common causes of respiratory failure. Emphysema occurs when the walls between the lung's air sacs become weakened and collapse. Damage from COPD is usually permanent and irreversible.

      COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder)

      illustration

    • Respiratory system

      Respiratory system - illustration

      Air is breathed in through the nasal passageways, travels through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs.

      Respiratory system

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

    Talking to your MD

     

    Self Care

     

    Tests for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

     

    Review Date: 7/16/2017

    Reviewed By: Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, MHS, Paul F. Harron, Jr. Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

    The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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